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Published on:1, 2011
Pharmacognosy Journal, 2011; 3(19):13-18
Original Article | doi:10.5530/pj.2011.19.3

Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Amaranthus spinosus L

Authors and affiliation (s):

Sangameswaran Balakrishnan*1, Balakrishnan Natarajan1, Balasubramaniam, Arumugam1,
Bhaskar Vaidun Hariram2

1Technocrates Institute of Technology-Pharmacy, Anandnagar, Bhopal - 462021, M.P, India, 2M.P. Patel College of Pharmacy,
Kapadwanj-387620, Gujarat, India


Introduction: In increasing demand in the field of herbal medicines and cosmetics, it has become necessary and pertinent to probe into the area of systematic knowledge about herbal drugs. There is a need for the application of this knowledge in authentification, detailed study and practical utilization of crude drugs. The present paper deals with the taxonomy, anatomy, powder study pertaining to organoleptic, microscopic, and physical constant evaluations of Amaranthus spinosus Linn (Amaranthaceae). It is a glabrous herb found in tropical and sub-tropical regions of India. The decoction of the leaves is diuretic and febrifuge. Leaves and stems are also used for treating eye diseases and diabetes. Methods: In the present study macroscopic, microscopic, ash values and extractive values were carried out to develop the diagnostic parameters for quality control of leaf and stem. The required samples of different organs were cut and removed from the plant and fixed in FAA (Formalin – 5 ml + acetic acid – 5ml + 70% Ethyl alcohol – 90ml). After 24 hrs of fixing, the specimens were dehydrated with graded series of tertiary – butyl alcohol. The specimens were castled into paraffin blocks. Results: Powder showed epidermal cell, anamocytic stomata, calcium oxalate crystals and cross section of leaf and stem showed the bundle sheath cells, median bundle, phloem fibers, vessels, periderm, secondary xylem and pith. Phytochemically, the methanol and aqueous extracts of A. spinosus showed maximum phytochemicals like alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, saponin, tannin and phenolic compounds, terpenoids, carbohydrates, etc. The average extractive values of leaf and stem can also be used for determine the quality of raw material of A. spinosus. Conclusion: The results of this study should provide a standard for identification and preparation of monograph of this drug.

Key words: Amaranthus spinosus, extractive and ash values, microscopical characters.


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