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Published on:4, 2011
Pharmacognosy Journal, 2011; 3(21):12-17
Original Article | doi:10.5530/pj.2011.21.2

Pharmacognostic Studies and Standardization of Cassia Sieberiana Roots

Authors and affiliation (s):

Sam GH*, Mensah MLK and Nyakoa-Ofori N.

Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana.


Cassia sieberiana D. C. [Caesalpiniaceae] though widely used in traditional medicine as an analgesic in dysmenorrhoea, ulcer, general body pains and in veterinary medicine, there is no report on its standardization. Objective: To establish standards for a partial monograph preparation. Materials and methods: Standardization followed British Pharmacoepoeia Standardization methods. Plant materials were collected and air dried for five days and then oven dried at 52°C for one hour and milled. A quantity of C. sieberiana powdered root was mounted separately in each of 10% iodine, chloral hydrate, phloroglucinol in conc HCl and Sudan III and examined under the microscope to identify the cell types and cell inclusions present. Mounted slides were photographed using digital camera Olympus OIL-8CC. Total ash value, acid insoluble ash, solvent extractives, pH and phytochemical analysis of extracts followed methods as in British Pharmacoepia (BP) 1990. Results: Transverse section (TS) of the root bark shows outermost layer of cork, beneath which is a layer of parenchyma cells and a ring of stone cells. The longitudinal section (LS) of the root bark conforms to the same tissue arrangement. Calcium oxalate crystals are pyramidal shaped with base diagonals measuring 40 to 160μ. Starch grains are oval; length ranging from 60 to 180μ and diameter from 40 to120μ. Total ash; 7.43-8.37, Acid insoluble ash; 4.80‑5.50% w/w. Ethanol(70%) extractive; 14.28-14.30% w/w; Chloroform-water extractive; 15.99-19.98%w/w, pH (1% w/v at 28°C); 4.88. Constituents: Anthraquinones, Saponins, Sterols, Steroidal glycosides, Tannins, Triterpenes. Conclusion: Established standards can form the basis for monograph compilation.

Key words: Cassia sieberiana, micromorphology, root, standardization.


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