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Published on:26th May 2014
Pharmacognosy Journal, 2014; 6(4):16-22
Research Article | doi:10.5530/pj.2014.4.3

Pharmacognostic evaluation and chrysazin quantitation of Xyris indica flowering heads

Authors and affiliation (s):

Chuanchom Khuniada, Worathat Thitikornpongb, Chanida Palanuveja* and Nijsiri Ruangrungsia,c

aCollege of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok-10330, Thailand

bFaculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok-10330, Thailand

cFaculty of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Pathumthani-12000, Thailand.


Objectives: The present study aimed to establish quality specification of Xyris indica L. flowering heads. The pharmacognostic parameters were investigated. Chrysazin contents were analyzed by TLC image analysis using ImageJ software compared to TLC-densitometry. Methods: X. indica flowering heads from 15 different sources in Thailand were collected. Morphological and physicochemical parameters were characterized. Chrysazin was successively extracted and determined by TLC image analysis using ImageJ software and TLC-densitometry. Results: Macroscopic study was illustrated as whole plant drawing. The microscopic study showed fragment of corolla, seeds, pollen grain and staminode. The pharmacognostic parameters revealed that the loss on drying, total ash, acid-insoluble ash and water content should be not more than 6.90, 2.50, 0.41, and 11.12 of % dry weight respectively while water and ethanol-soluble extractive values should be not less than 6.59 and 4.03 of % dry weight respectively. TLC fingerprint revealed clearly chrysazin yellow fluorescent band at 365 nm. Chrysazin quantitation by TLC image analysis and TLC densitometry were developed and validated. Chrysazin content was 0.022 ± 0.001 % dry weight by both methods. There was no statistically significantly difference between these methods. Conclusion: This study provided pharmacognostic specification and chrysazin content of X. indica flowering heads that can be used for basic quality control and standardization of plant material. TLC image analysis using ImageJ software showed reliable and convenient for analysis of chrysazin content in this crude drug.

Key words: Xyris indica, Pharmacognostic specification, Chrysazin, Quantitative analysis, Antimicrobial activities


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