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Pharmacognosy Journal, 2013; 5(4):176-183
Original Article | doi:10.1016/j.phcgj.2013.07.002

Pharmacognostic specifications of eight cultivars of Piper betle from eastern region of India

Authors and affiliation (s):

Atiya Akhtar Khan, Satyendra Prasad Bhatnagar, Barij Nayan Sinha, Uma Ranjan Lal*

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi 835215, Jharkhand, India


Background: Piper betle L. is a well-known and widely used herb especially in tropical Asiatic countries, which contains several bio-active constituents and possesses health promoting properties. The leaves of Piper betle L. have been traditionally known for its various therapeutic uses. The pharmacognostical and physicochemical investigations have not been carried out for eastern Piper betle cultivars. Objective: The present investigation was therefore undertaken to determine the requisite pharmacognostic standards for their evaluation to ensure their safety and efficacy. Materials and methods: Different Piper betle L. cultivars (Desi, Bangla, Kali, Haldia, Sanci, Meetha, Birkoli and Magahi) were obtained from Indian States of West Bengal, Odisha, and Bihar (Table 1). Fresh leaves were washed with water, sliced with a microtome and the transverse sections were stained with safranin, phloroglucinol, concentrated hydrochloric acid and mounted in glycerine medium. Leaves dried in the shade were finely powdered and passed through a sieve no.180 and a sieve no.125, separately, to obtain fine powder respectively and then subjected to microscopic examination. Mesophyll tissue is divided up by slendest vein, which is called vein islet. The numbers of vein islet in every epidermal cell is called Vein Islet Numbers (VIN); Vein termination number is the number of veinlet termination per square mm of the leaf surface midway between the midrib and the margin (VTN). Since vein islet and vein termination number is consistent and different from plant to plant, this parameter can be used in authentication. Stomatal Index (SI) is a basilic parameter in authentication, which can be obtained from the following formula: Stomatal Index ¼ (number of stomata/every millimeter- square) × 100/(number of stomata/every millimeter-square + number of epidermal cell/every millimeter - square), which also can be used as a reliable parameter in authentication since it is consistent in a species of plant. The results were studied using light microscope according to the usual microscopic techniques. Different physicochemical parameters such as ash value, extractive value and loss on drying were carried out as per WHO guidelines. Results: In present study eight cultivars of Piper betle were compared with their distinguishing morphoanatomic details of leaf, dissociation and powders. The microscopic features were systematically described and illustrated. The physiochemical properties such as loss on drying, total ash value, acid insoluble ash value, water soluble ash value and extractive values were also carried out. HPTLC analysis of petroleum ether extract and essential oil showed confirming the presence of compound in Piper betle cultivars leaf. And detailed key authentication parameters based on these anatomic characteristics were presented. The various morphological, microscopical, physicochemical standards can be unambiguously used to authenticate standardization and distinguish eight cultivars of Piper betle.

Key words: Piper betle cultivars, Pharmacognosy, Microscopic, Macroscopic, Physiochemical.


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