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Published on:31 Dec 2012
Pharmacognosy Journal, 2012; 4(34):57-68
Original Article | doi:10.5530/pj.2012.34.11

Histo-morphological, fluorescent and powder microscopic characterization of Cissampelos pareira Linn.

Authors and affiliation (s):

Sudhakaran M.V

Department of Drug Standardisation, Government Ayurveda College, Thiruvananthapuram -695 001, Kerala, India


Introduction: Cissampelos pareira Linn. is a dioecious, perennial, twinning and climbing medicinal shrub belongs to the family Menispermaceae. It is being used as a traditional remedy by native peoples of South America for centuries, to treat women’s ailments, such as for menstrual cramps, prevents threatened miscarriage, ease childbirth, to stop uterine hemorrhages after childbirth, postpartum pain and fibroid tumors. Drug is frequently prescribed for treating cough, abdominal pain and fever according to Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India. The genus is highly specialized for the richness of a diverse array of biologically active bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids. Objectives: The present study was performed with the objectives to elaborate the macroscopic and histo-morpho diagnostic profile of Cissampelos pareira and to analyze the quantitative, fluorescent and powder microscopic peculiarities to support its pharmacobotanical characterization. Materials and Methods: microscopic evaluation, quantitative, fluorescence standards of the drug and powder microscopy were carried out using the stem, root and leaves of Cissampelos pareira Linn. Results: Distribution of long uniseriate, bicellular clothing trichomes in the epidermal tissues of the aerial parts, presence of actinodromous venation with small, pentagonal shaped areoles, adaxial irregular and wavy epidermal cells, hypostomatic epidermis, abaxial anomocytic stomata, distinctive contour of the midrib, dorsiventral mesophyll with prominent spongy parenchyma zone having lobed and interconnected spongy cells, small palisade ratio, small stomatal index, and the vascular system having a ring of seven free collateral bundles in petiole were features characteristics of the species. Extraxylary fibres, distension and arching over to the vascular strands of the stem. Deposition of simple and compound starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals in the epidermal tissues of the lamina, ground tissues of petiole, stem, secondary xylem vessels of the root. Wagon wheel with spokes like appearance of the cross sectional view of the root, wood with more axial and radial parenchyma and less xylem fiber. Apotracheal diffuse axial parenchyma and wide non-lignified rays are also diagnostic features of the taxon. Conclusion: The present macroscopic and histo-anatomical observations of stem, root and leaves of Cissampelos pareira thus provides useful information for quality control parameters for the crude drugs. Powder, quantitative and fluorescence standards put forth could label valuable information as identifying parameters to substantiate and authenticate the phytomedicine.

Key words: Anomocytic stomata, axial parenchyma, calcium oxalate, extraxylary fibers, palisade ratio, vein-islets and stone cells.


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